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Albums of the latest and loved, and the ones to look out for discover By okspud1 15 Feb am. All Things Hyped: Last. Play track. Love this track. More Love this track Set track as current obsession Get track Loading. Thursday 13 February Friday 14 February Saturday 15 February Sunday 16 February Monday 17 February Tuesday 18 February Wednesday 19 February Thursday 20 February Friday 21 February Saturday 22 February Sunday 23 February Monday 24 February Tuesday 25 February Wednesday 26 February Thursday 27 February Friday 28 February Saturday 29 February Sunday 1 March Monday 2 March Tuesday 3 March Wednesday 4 March Thursday 5 March Friday 6 March Saturday 7 March Sunday 8 March Monday 9 March Tuesday 10 March Wednesday 11 March Thursday 12 March Friday 13 March Saturday 14 March Sunday 15 March Monday 16 March Tuesday 17 March Wednesday 18 March Thursday 19 March Friday 20 March Saturday 21 March Sunday 22 March Monday 23 March Tuesday 24 March Wednesday 25 March Deng ruled as "paramount leader" although he never held the top title of the party, and was able to successively remove three party leaders, including Hu Yaobang.
Deng repudiated the Cultural Revolution and, in , launched the " Beijing Spring ", which allowed open criticism of the excesses and suffering that had occurred during the period, and restored the National College Entrance Examination Gao Kao which was cancelled for ten years during the Cultural Revolution.
Meanwhile, he was the impetus for the abolition of the class background system. Under this system, the CPC removed employment barriers to Chinese deemed to be associated with the former landlord class; its removal allowed a faction favoring the restoration of the private market to enter the Communist Party. Deng gradually outmaneuvered his political opponents. By encouraging public criticism of the Cultural Revolution, he weakened the position of those who owed their political positions to that event, while strengthening the position of those like himself who had been purged during that time.
Deng also received a great deal of popular support. During the " Boluan Fanzheng " period, the Cultural Revolution was invalidated, and victims of more than 3 million "unjust, false, wrongful cases" by were officially rehabilitated. Deng's elevation to China's new number-one figure meant that the historical and ideological questions around Mao Zedong had to be addressed properly. Because Deng wished to pursue deep reforms, it was not possible for him to continue Mao's hard-line "class struggle" policies and mass public campaigns.
Mao retained his status as a "great Marxist, proletarian revolutionary, militarist, and general", and the undisputed founder and pioneer of the country and the People's Liberation Army. Deng personally commented that Mao was "seven parts good, three parts bad. Deng was very impressed with Singapore's economic development, greenery and housing, and later sent tens of thousands of Chinese to Singapore and countries around the world to learn from their experiences and bring back their knowledge.
Lee Kuan Yew , on the other hand, advised Deng to stop exporting Communist ideologies to Southeast Asia, advice that Deng later followed. Thanks to the support of other party leaders who had already recovered their official positions, in the rise to power of Deng was inevitable. Even though Hua Guofeng formally monopolized the top positions in the People's Republic, his position, with little support, was becoming increasingly difficult.
Beginning in , the economic reforms accelerated the market model, while the leaders maintained old Communist-style rhetoric. The commune system was gradually dismantled and the peasants began to have more freedom to manage the land they cultivated and sell their products on the market.
At the same time, China's economy opened up to foreign trade. On 1 January , the United States recognized the People's Republic of China, leaving the Taiwan Republic of China's nationalist government to one side, and business contacts between China and the West began to grow. In late , the aerospace company Boeing announced the sale of aircraft to various airlines in the PRC, and the beverage company Coca-Cola made public their intention to open a production plant in Shanghai.
The Chinese insisted that former President Richard Nixon be invited to the formal White House reception, a symbolic indication of their assertiveness on the one hand, and their desire to continue with the Nixon initiatives on the other.
With these visits so significant, Deng made it clear that the new Chinese regime's priorities were economic and technological development. Sino-Japanese relations also improved significantly. Deng quoted the old proverb "it doesn't matter whether a cat is black or white, if it catches mice it is a good cat. Deng thus took the reins of power and began to emphasize the goals of "four modernizations" economy, agriculture, scientific and technological development and national defense.
He announced an ambitious plan of opening and liberalizing the economy. In just a few years they worked wonders as the world watched in amazement.
The last position of power retained by Hua Guofeng, chairman of the Central Military Commission, was taken by Deng in However, progress toward military modernization went slowly. An actual border war underway with Vietnam in made major changes unwise.
The war puzzled outside observers, but Xiaoming Zhang argues that Deng had multiple goals: stopping Soviet expansion in the region, obtain American support for his four modernizations, and mobilizing China for reform and integration into the world economy. Deng also sought to strengthen his control of the PLA, and demonstrate to the world that China was capable of fighting a real war. Zhang thinks punishment of Vietnam for its invasion of Cambodia was a minor factor.
Moreover, Deng initiated the modernization of the PLA and decided that China first had to develop an advanced civilian scientific infrastructure before it could hope to build modern weapons.
He emphasized the recruitment of much better educated young men who would be able to handle the advanced technology when it finally arrived.
Instead of patronage and corruption in the officer corps, he imposed strict discipline in all ranks. In he established a new Commission for Science, Technology, and Industry for National Defense to plan for using technology developed in the civilian sector. Deng did little to improve poor relations with Brezhnev and the Kremlin during his early rule. He continued to adhere to the Maoist line of the Sino—Soviet split era that the Soviet Union was a superpower as "hegemonic" as the United States, but even more threatening to China because of its close proximity.
Deng continued to chair and develop the reform and opening up as the main policy, and he advanced the three steps suitable for China's economic development strategy within seventy years: the first step, to double the GNP and ensure that the people have enough food and clothing, was attained by the end of the s; the second step, to quadruple the GNP by the end of the 20th century, was achieved in ahead of schedule; the third step, to increase per capita GNP to the level of the medium-developed countries by , at which point, the Chinese people will be fairly well-off and modernization will be basically realized.
Improving relations with the outside world was the second of two important philosophical shifts outlined in Deng's program of reform termed Gaige Kaifang lit. Reforms and Openness.
China's domestic social, political, and most notably, economic systems would undergo significant changes during Deng's time. The goals of Deng's reforms were summed up by the Four Modernizations , those of agriculture, industry, science and technology, and the military.
The strategy for achieving these aims of becoming a modern, industrial nation was the socialist market economy. Deng argued that China was in the primary stage of socialism and that the duty of the party was to perfect so-called " socialism with Chinese characteristics ",   and " seek truth from facts ".
This somewhat resembles the Leninist theoretical justification of the New Economic Policy NEP in the s, which argued that the Soviet Union had not gone deeply enough into the capitalist phase and therefore needed limited capitalism in order to fully evolve its means of production. This interpretation of Maoism reduced the role of ideology in economic decision-making.
Downgrading communitarian values, but not necessarily criticising the ideology of Marxism-Leninism , Deng emphasized that "socialism does not mean shared poverty". His theoretical justification for allowing market forces was given as such:. A planned economy is not the definition of socialism, because there is planning under capitalism; the market economy happens under socialism, too. Planning and market forces are both ways of controlling economic activity.
Unlike Hua Guofeng , Deng believed that no policy should be rejected outright simply because it was not associated with Mao. Unlike more conservative leaders such as Chen Yun , Deng did not object to policies on the grounds that they were similar to ones that were found in capitalist nations.
This political flexibility towards the foundations of socialism is strongly supported by quotes such as:. We mustn't fear to adopt the advanced management methods applied in capitalist countries The very essence of socialism is the liberation and development of the productive systems Socialism and market economy are not incompatible We should be concerned about right-wing deviations, but most of all, we must be concerned about left-wing deviations.
Although Deng provided the theoretical background and the political support to allow economic reform to occur, the general consensus amongst historians is that few of the economic reforms that Deng introduced were originated by Deng himself. In addition, many reforms would be introduced by local leaders, often not sanctioned by central government directives. If successful and promising, these reforms would be adopted by larger and larger areas and ultimately introduced nationally.
An often cited example is the household responsibility system , which was first secretly implemented by a poor rural village at the risk of being convicted as "counter-revolutionary. Many other reforms were influenced by the experiences of the East Asian Tigers. This is in sharp contrast to the pattern in the perestroika undertaken by Mikhail Gorbachev in which most of the major reforms were originated by Gorbachev himself.
The bottom-up approach of the Deng reforms, in contrast to the top-down approach of perestroika , was likely a key factor in the success of the former. Deng's reforms actually included the introduction of planned, centralized management of the macro-economy by technically proficient bureaucrats, abandoning Mao's mass campaign style of economic construction. However, unlike the Soviet model, management was indirect through market mechanisms.
Deng sustained Mao's legacy to the extent that he stressed the primacy of agricultural output and encouraged a significant decentralization of decision making in the rural economy teams and individual peasant households.
At the local level, material incentives, rather than political appeals, were to be used to motivate the labor force, including allowing peasants to earn extra income by selling the produce of their private plots at free market value.
In the move toward market allocation, local municipalities and provinces were allowed to invest in industries that they considered most profitable, which encouraged investment in light manufacturing. Thus, Deng's reforms shifted China's development strategy to an emphasis on light industry and export-led growth. Light industrial output was vital for a developing country coming from a low capital base. With the short gestation period, low capital requirements, and high foreign-exchange export earnings, revenues generated by light manufacturing were able to be reinvested in technologically more advanced production and further capital expenditures and investments.
However, in sharp contrast to the similar, but much less successful reforms in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the People's Republic of Hungary , these investments were not government mandated.
The capital invested in heavy industry largely came from the banking system, and most of that capital came from consumer deposits. One of the first items of the Deng reforms was to prevent reallocation of profits except through taxation or through the banking system; hence, the reallocation in state-owned industries was somewhat indirect, thus making them more or less independent from government interference.
In short, Deng's reforms sparked an industrial revolution in China. These reforms were a reversal of the Maoist policy of economic self-reliance. China decided to accelerate the modernization process by stepping up the volume of foreign trade, especially the purchase of machinery from Japan and the West. By participating in such export-led growth, China was able to step up the Four Modernizations by attaining certain foreign funds, market, advanced technologies and management experiences, thus accelerating its economic development.
From , Deng attracted foreign companies to a series of Special Economic Zones , where foreign investment and market liberalization were encouraged. The reforms sought to improve labor productivity. New material incentives and bonus systems were introduced. Rural markets selling peasants' homegrown products and the surplus products of communes were revived. Not only did rural markets increase agricultural output, they stimulated industrial development as well.
With peasants able to sell surplus agricultural yields on the open market, domestic consumption stimulated industrialization as well and also created political support for more difficult economic reforms. There are some parallels between Deng's market socialism especially in the early stages, and Vladimir Lenin 's NEP as well as those of Nikolai Bukharin 's economic policies, in that both foresaw a role for private entrepreneurs and markets based on trade and pricing rather than central planning.
An interesting anecdote on this note is the first meeting between Deng and Armand Hammer. Deng pressed the industrialist and former investor in Lenin's Soviet Union for as much information on the NEP as possible. From onwards, Deng led the expansion of the economy, and in political terms took over negotiations with the United Kingdom to return the territory of Hong Kong , meeting personally with then-Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Thatcher had participated in the meetings with the hopes of keeping British rule over Hong Kong Island and Kowloon - two of the three constituent territories of the colony - but this was firmly rejected by Deng.
The result of these negotiations was the Sino-British Joint Declaration , signed on 19 December , which formally outlined the United Kingdom's return of the whole Hong Kong colony to China by The Chinese government pledged to respect the economic system and civil liberties of the British colony for fifty years after the handover.
Under pressure from China, Portugal agreed in to the return of Macau by , with an agreement roughly equal to that of Hong Kong. The return of these two territories was based on a political principle formulated by Deng himself called " one country, two systems ", which refers to the co-existence under one political authority of areas with different economic systems of communism and capitalism.
Although this theory was applied to Hong Kong and Macau, Deng apparently intended to also present it as an attractive option to the people of Taiwan for eventual incorporation of that island, where sovereignty over the territory is still disputed. China's rapid economic growth presented several problems.
The census revealed the extraordinary growth of the population, which already exceeded a billion people. Deng continued the plans initiated by Hua Guofeng to restrict birth to only one child , limiting women to one child under pain of administrative penalty. Increasing economic freedom was being translated into a greater freedom of opinion, and critics began to arise within the system, including the famous dissident Wei Jingsheng , who coined the term "fifth modernization" in reference to democracy as a missing element in the renewal plans of Deng Xiaoping.
In the late s, dissatisfaction with the authoritarian regime and growing inequalities caused the biggest crisis to Deng's leadership. The Tiananmen Square protests, culminating in the June Fourth Massacre, were a series of demonstrations in and near Tiananmen Square in the People's Republic of China PRC between 15 April and 5 June , a year in which many other communist governments collapsed.
The protests were sparked by the death of Hu Yaobang , a reformist official backed by Deng but ousted by the Eight Elders and the conservative wing of the politburo. Many people were dissatisfied with the party's slow response and relatively subdued funeral arrangements. Public mourning began on the streets of Beijing and universities in the surrounding areas. The mourning became a public conduit for anger against perceived nepotism in the government, the unfair dismissal and early death of Hu, and the behind-the-scenes role of the "old men".
By the eve of Hu's funeral, the demonstration had reached , people on Tiananmen Square. While the protests lacked a unified cause or leadership, participants raised the issue of corruption within the government and some voiced calls for economic liberalization  and democratic reform  within the structure of the government while others called for a less authoritarian and less centralized form of socialism.
During the demonstrations, Deng's pro-market ally general secretary Zhao Ziyang supported the demonstrators and distanced himself from the Politburo. Martial law was declared on 20 May by the socialist hardliner Li Peng , but the initial military advance on the city was blocked by residents. The movement lasted seven weeks. On 3—4 June, over two hundred thousand soldiers in tanks and helicopters were sent into the city to quell the protests by force , resulting in hundreds to thousands of casualties.
Many ordinary people in Beijing believed that Deng had ordered the intervention, but political analysts do not know who was actually behind the order. To purge sympathizers of Tiananmen demonstrators, the Communist Party initiated a one-and-a-half-year-long program similar to the Anti-Rightist Movement.
Old-timers like Deng Fei aimed to deal "strictly with those inside the party with serious tendencies toward bourgeois liberalization", and more than 30, communist officers were deployed to the task. Zhao was placed under house arrest by hardliners and Deng himself was forced to make concessions to them.
A few months later he said that the "United States was too deeply involved" in the student movement, referring to foreign reporters who had given financial aid to the student leaders and later helped them escape to various Western countries, primarily the United States through Hong Kong and Taiwan.
Although Deng initially made concessions to the socialist hardliners, he soon resumed his reforms after his southern tour. After his tour, he was able to stop the attacks of the socialist hardliners on the reforms through their "named capitalist or socialist? Deng privately told Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau that factions of the Communist Party could have grabbed army units and the country had risked a civil war.
Zhu Rongji had refused to declare martial law in Shanghai during the demonstrations even though socialist hardliners had pressured him. Officially, Deng decided to retire from top positions when he stepped down as Chairman of the Central Military Commission in , and retired from the political scene in He continued to be widely regarded as the " paramount leader " of the country, believed to have backroom control. Deng was recognized officially as "the chief architect of China's economic reforms and China's socialist modernization".
To the Communist Party, he was believed to have set a good example for communist cadres who refused to retire at old age. English Choose a language for shopping. Skip to main content There's a problem loading this menu right now. Artist Overview Albums Digital Music. Top Albums More Formats No results were found for that selection.
Casa Batllo. Jesse James. Pablo's Lament. Deng Xiaoping. Foreign Disaster Days. Peach Tree. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Mao Xiaoping is a former Chinese politician, most widely known for his tenure as the Mayor and Communist Party Secretary of Wuxi, a city in Jiangsu province.
He was investigated for corruption in and later expelled from the Communist Party of Toggle navigation. Xiaoping Meaning : The Chinese boys name Xiaoping means 'little bottle'. Pantsov and Steven I., an Album by Brazzaville. Released in on Engine Group (catalog no. DOC; CD). Genres: Indie Pop.