How do you think the Earth looked when it was first formed? This lesson will help you understand how the Earth formed, what it looked like during its earliest years, and how life first developed on Earth. The following questions are addressed in other chapters and will help you work through this lesson.
Research these before you move on. We can construct the formation history of our solar system by looking at regions where other stars are forming now. Star formation begins when a giant cloud of gas and dust collapses under its own gravity. As the cloud contracts, it begins to spin faster and settles into a disk-shaped structure.
We see these disc-shaped objects called proplyds in the Orion Nebula Figure Most of the dusty disk material drains toward the center where the density gradually increases until the enormous central pressure triggers nuclear fusion reactions and the star is born. However, a relatively small fraction of the disk material is left behind in the form of ice-coated dust grains. The icy mantles of the grains begin sticking together and eventually grow to meter-sized rocky boulders called planetesimals.
The planetesimals collide and accrete into larger bodies that are tens of kilometers in diameter called protoplanets. Once the protoplanets clear a gap in the disk, they become bonafide planets and their orbits begin to stabilize Figure The process of planet formation is messy. Not all of the planetesimals are accreted into planets. Millions of planetesimals remain as the leftover debris and are now the asteroids and ice-coated comets in our solar system. In the first hundred million years after the formation of the Sun, collisions between the leftover planetesimals and the planets were common.
We see evidence for heavy bombardment by planetesimals on the surfaces of the moon and Mercury Figure The same types of collisions would have occurred on the surface of the Earth, however erosive processes have erased all except the most recent of these collisions.
Pictured in Figure About million years after the formation of the Sun, the gravity of the planets and moons in our solar system had swept up most of the planetesimals. However, millions of these objects still remain in gravitationally stable orbits in the main asteroid belt of the solar system, in the Trojan asteroid belt, or out beyond Neptune and Pluto in the Kuiper belt.
Illustrated in the sketch below is the location of the largest reservoir of asteroids in our solar system today Figure Earth is the only object in our solar system known to support life Figure Today there are over 1 million known species of plants and animals on Earth. The materials that came together to form the Earth were made of several different chemical elements. Tina Orem. NerdWallet January 31, Recently Viewed Your list is empty. What to Read Next. Two other states—New Hampshire and Tennessee—tax only income from interest and dividends.
If you worked in one of these states but are resident in a state that does have an income tax, you must report your out-of-state income in your taxes for your resident state. Check which states have withheld taxes. Some states have tax reciprocity agreements that allow non-resident workers to request income withholding from out-of-state earnings. These agreements are usually made with neighboring states that share many employees.
For example, there is a reciprocal agreement between Maryland and Washington, D. There is also one between New Jersey and Pennsylvania. You may have had taxes withheld from your out-of-state earnings already if you filled out the necessary forms. Part 3 of Determine if you plan to file separately or jointly. Married couples in the U. Generally, most couples get the biggest benefit from filing jointly. But there are certain situations where couples may want to file separately.
If one spouse earns most of the income, then the couple could benefit from filing jointly. By contrast, if each spouse earns about the same, then they might want to file separately. File a part-year form if one person moved during the year. If you are filing jointly and one person was a part-year resident of two states, you will need to file using a part-year form in both states. Report non-resident income when filing jointly.
If you are filing jointly and one person earned non-resident income in a state outside your resident state, you will need to report this on your resident state income tax form. This applies if your state has an income tax. You may also need to report this income as non-resident income in the state where you earned the money. This is likely the case if the state has an income tax. Use your own resident status if you file separately. Part 4 of Calculate your federal adjusted gross income.
You will usually want to complete your federal income tax return before doing your state returns. This way, you can accurately report your federal adjusted gross income on your state returns.
Generally, it's best to prepare your federal income taxes before your state taxes. If you itemize deductions, you can deduct the state income tax from your federal taxes.
For instance, if you pay state income tax in for the year , you can deduct that amount from your taxes. Find the tax return forms for your states. Each state will have its own specific tax return forms for you to use. Use the Revenue Department websites for both states to find the appropriate forms.
If you must file as a non-resident or part-year resident, find the appropriate form. States often require that these taxpayers use forms that are different than those used by residents. Although two states' forms may be very similar to one another, you must use the proper form for each state. Take out your resident income tax form.
Report the income you earned in your resident state. Also report non-resident income on your resident tax form. If you are a resident of one state and earned non-resident income in another, you usually need to report this income on your resident state tax return.
You are required to pay tax on all income received, even if it is from other states. But you will likely be eligible to receive a credit on your resident state taxes. This will be calculated according to how much you already paid in the other state. Report non-resident income on the non-resident tax form. When you earn non-resident income outside of your home state, you report only the money you made as a non-resident on your non-resident tax form.
Take a credit for non-resident income on your resident tax form. This is where the tax complexity comes in, because some categories of income may be taxed as capital gains, while others are taxed as regular income, and you want to be sure you pay the appropriate tax rate.
After all, while you don't want to pay the higher regular income rate if you can pay the lower capital gains rate, you also don't want to get on the IRS' bad side by under-reporting income. A Schedule K-1 is not entirely like a or W2, though. If you're getting a Schedule K-1 form from an entity you partly own, you may also be able to claim a share of the losses, deductions, and credits, as well as your share of the income.
Just like any other income or tax document you get during tax season, you need to report your schedule K-1 when you file your taxes -- for two reasons:. It's wise to either go to a tax professional or at least use reputable tax-filing software if you're receiving Schedule K-1 forms. Not only will this simplify the process, but it will likely save you more than enough time to make the cost worthwhile, especially if you have multiple Schedule K-1 forms.
For this reason, it's generally best to avoid these kinds of investments in a retirement account. If you get a Schedule K-1 because of a windfall such as an inheritance from an estate or as beneficiary of a trust, it's just the way it is.
But if you're receiving them due to investments in LLCs, partnerships, or a "C" corp, you should look at the bigger picture. Those entities are often able to pay out more of their cash flows because of their legal structures, but you'll probably pay more tax on your end.
In some cases, you'll also get a share of the losses, deductions, and credits, as well.Jun 14, · “It’s really just for two reasons: one, because this isn’t over yet, and two, they now have had the chance to experience the lifestyle that we all enjoy here and they appreciate it.”.