It was Sherman, along with his business partner Jeff Orr, who was responsible for pushing the AGLC to change the laws that allowed them to open in the first place. The front tasting room is designed to look like a tool shed, complete with unfinished wood panels on the walls and bar In the back is an enormous space with picnic tables for patrons, looking out onto the production area. The brewhouse and the beer are given equal weight to the food.
Both are excellent. As for beer, we tried a white IPA and a porter, both helmed by head brewer Jeff Demaniuk, formerly of Phillips and Parallel 49, who brings a West Coast flare to the operation. Village is the oldest of the new batch of breweries, standing somewhere between the artisanal aspects of Tool Shed and the commercial ambitions of Big Rock.
Instead, claiming that Italians were a superior race to African races and thereby had the right to colonize the "inferior" Africans, it sought to settle 10 to 15 million Italians in Libya. The March on Rome brought Fascism international attention. One early admirer of the Italian Fascists was Adolf Hitler , who less than a month after the March had begun to model himself and the Nazi Party upon Mussolini and the Fascists.
The conditions of economic hardship caused by the Great Depression brought about an international surge of social unrest. According to historian Philip Morgan, "the onset of the Great Depression In Germany, it contributed to the rise of the National Socialist German Workers' Party , which resulted in the demise of the Weimar Republic and the establishment of the fascist regime, Nazi Germany , under the leadership of Adolf Hitler.
With the rise of Hitler and the Nazis to power in , liberal democracy was dissolved in Germany and the Nazis mobilized the country for war, with expansionist territorial aims against several countries. In the s, the Nazis implemented racial laws that deliberately discriminated against, disenfranchised and persecuted Jews and other racial and minority groups.
Fascist movements grew in strength elsewhere in Europe. He created an eight-hour work day, a forty-eight-hour work week in industry and sought to entrench a corporatist economy; and pursued irredentist claims on Hungary's neighbors.
During the Great Depression, Mussolini promoted active state intervention in the economy. He denounced the contemporary " supercapitalism " that he claimed began in as a failure because of its alleged decadence , its support for unlimited consumerism and its intention to create the "standardization of humankind". The Institute for Industrial Reconstruction, a state-operated holding company in charge of bankrupt banks and companies, reported in early that they held assets of " In Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, both Mussolini and Hitler pursued territorial expansionist and interventionist foreign policy agendas from the s through the s culminating in World War II.
Mussolini called for irredentist Italian claims to be reclaimed, establishing Italian domination of the Mediterranean Sea and securing Italian access to the Atlantic Ocean and the creation of Italian spazio vitale "vital space" in the Mediterranean and Red Sea regions.
From to , Germany and Italy escalated their demands for territorial claims and greater influence in world affairs. Italy invaded Ethiopia in resulting in its condemnation by the League of Nations and its widespread diplomatic isolation. In , Germany remilitarized the industrial Rhineland , a region that had been ordered demilitarized by the Treaty of Versailles. In , Germany annexed Austria and Italy assisted Germany in resolving the diplomatic crisis between Germany versus Britain and France over claims on Czechoslovakia by arranging the Munich Agreement that gave Germany the Sudetenland and was perceived at the time to have averted a European war.
These hopes faded when Hitler violated the Munich Agreement by ordering the invasion and partition of Czechoslovakia between Germany and a client state of Slovakia in At the same time from to , Italy was demanding territorial and colonial concessions from France and Britain. The invasion of Poland by Germany was deemed unacceptable by Britain, France and their allies, resulting in their mutual declaration of war against Germany that was deemed the aggressor in the war in Poland, resulting in the outbreak of World War II.
Mussolini was aware that Italy did not have the military capacity to carry out a long war with France or the United Kingdom and waited until France was on the verge of imminent collapse and surrender from the German invasion before declaring war on France and the United Kingdom on 10 June on the assumption that the war would be short-lived following France's collapse.
Axis forces at the height of their power controlled almost all of continental Europe. The war became prolonged—contrary to Mussolini's plans—resulting in Italy losing battles on multiple fronts and requiring German assistance. After , Axis forces began to falter. In , after Italy faced multiple military failures, the complete reliance and subordination of Italy to Germany, the Allied invasion of Italy and the corresponding international humiliation, Mussolini was removed as head of government and arrested on the order of King Victor Emmanuel III, who proceeded to dismantle the Fascist state and declared Italy's switching of allegiance to the Allied side.
Mussolini was rescued from arrest by German forces and led the German client state, the Italian Social Republic from to Nazi Germany faced multiple losses and steady Soviet and Western Allied offensives from to On 28 April , Mussolini was captured and executed by Italian communist partisans. On 30 April , Hitler committed suicide. Shortly afterwards, Germany surrendered and the Nazi regime was systematically dismantled by the occupying Allied powers.
An International Military Tribunal was subsequently convened in Nuremberg. Beginning in November and lasting through , numerous Nazi political, military and economic leaders were tried and convicted of war crimes , with many of the worst offenders receiving the death penalty.
The Nuremberg Trials convicted several Nazi leaders of crimes against humanity involving the Holocaust. However, there remained several movements and governments that were ideologically related to fascism. The first years were characterized by a repression against the anti-fascist ideologies, a deep censorship and the suppression of democratic institutions elected Parliament, Constitution of , Regional Statutes of Autonomy.
After World War II and a period of international isolation, Franco's regime normalized relations with the Western powers during the Cold War , until Franco's death in and the transformation of Spain into a liberal democracy.
Historian Robert Paxton observes that one of the main problems in defining fascism is that it was widely mimicked. Paxton says: "In fascism's heyday, in the s, many regimes that were not functionally fascist borrowed elements of fascist decor in order to lend themselves an aura of force, vitality, and mass mobilization".
He goes on to observe that Salazar "crushed Portuguese fascism after he had copied some of its techniques of popular mobilization". The term neo-fascism refers to fascist movements after World War II.
In Italy, the Italian Social Movement led by Giorgio Almirante was a major neo-fascist movement that transformed itself into a self-described "post-fascist" movement called the National Alliance AN , which has been an ally of Silvio Berlusconi 's Forza Italia for a decade.
In Germany, various neo-Nazi movements have been formed and banned in accordance with Germany's constitutional law which forbids Nazism. After the onset of the Great Recession and economic crisis in Greece, a movement known as the Golden Dawn , widely considered a neo-Nazi party, soared in support out of obscurity and won seats in Greece 's parliament, espousing a staunch hostility towards minorities, illegal immigrants and refugees.
In , after the murder of an anti-fascist musician by a person with links to Golden Dawn, the Greek government ordered the arrest of Golden Dawn's leader Nikolaos Michaloliakos and other Golden Dawn members on charges related to being associated with a criminal organization.
Robert O. Paxton finds that even though fascism "maintained the existing regime of property and social hierarchy," it cannot be considered "simply a more muscular form of conservatism," because "fascism in power did carry out some changes profound enough to be called 'revolutionary'". It changed the practice of citizenship from the enjoyment of constitutional rights and duties to participation in mass ceremonies of affirmation and conformity.
It reconfigured relations between the individual and the collectivity, so that an individual had no rights outside community interest. It expanded the powers of the executive—party and state—in a bid for total control. Finally, it unleashed aggressive emotions hitherto known in Europe only during war or social revolution. Ultranationalism , combined with the myth of national rebirth, is a key foundation of fascism.
The fascist view of a nation is of a single organic entity that binds people together by their ancestry and is a natural unifying force of people. Falangism in Spain envisioned worldwide unification of Spanish-speaking peoples Hispanidad.
British Fascism was non-interventionist , though it did embrace the British Empire. Fascism promotes the establishment of a totalitarian state. Thus understood, Fascism is totalitarian, and the Fascist State—a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values—interprets, develops, and potentiates the whole life of a people".
Fascist states pursued policies of social indoctrination through propaganda in education and the media and regulation of the production of educational and media materials. It attempted to purge ideas that were not consistent with the beliefs of the fascist movement and to teach students to be obedient to the state. Fascism presented itself as an alternative to both international socialism and free market capitalism.
Fascist governments advocated resolution of domestic class conflict within a nation in order to secure national solidarity. While fascism denounced the mainstream internationalist and Marxist socialisms, it claimed to economically represent a type of nationalist productivist socialism that while condemning parasitical capitalism, it was willing to accommodate productivist capitalism within it. Fascist economics supported a state-controlled economy that accepted a mix of private and public ownership over the means of production.
While fascism accepted the importance of material wealth and power, it condemned materialism which identified as being present in both communism and capitalism and criticized materialism for lacking acknowledgement of the role of the spirit. Since the Depression was a crisis of laissez-faire capitalism and its political counterpart, parliamentary democracy, fascism could pose as the 'third-way' alternative between capitalism and Bolshevism, the model of a new European 'civilization'.
As Mussolini typically put it in early , "from The dominant forces of the 19th century, democracy, socialism, liberalism have been exhausted Fascists criticized egalitarianism as preserving the weak, and they instead promoted social Darwinist views and policies. It provided support only to those who were "racially sound, capable of and willing to work, politically reliable, and willing and able to reproduce.
Fascism emphasizes direct action , including supporting the legitimacy of political violence , as a core part of its politics. The basis of fascism's support of violent action in politics is connected to social Darwinism. Fascism emphasizes youth both in a physical sense of age and in a spiritual sense as related to virility and commitment to action. Italian Fascism pursued what it called "moral hygiene" of youth, particularly regarding sexuality.
Mussolini perceived women's primary role as primarily child bearers and men, warriors—once saying: "War is to man what maternity is to the woman". Mussolini went on to say that the solution to unemployment for men was the "exodus of women from the work force". The German Nazi government strongly encouraged women to stay at home to bear children and keep house.
The unemployment rate was cut substantially, mostly through arms production and sending women home so that men could take their jobs.
Nazi propaganda sometimes promoted premarital and extramarital sexual relations, unwed motherhood and divorce, but at other times the Nazis opposed such behaviour. The Nazis decriminalized abortion in cases where fetuses had hereditary defects or were of a race the government disapproved of, while the abortion of healthy pure German, Aryan fetuses remained strictly forbidden.
Their eugenics program also stemmed from the "progressive biomedical model" of Weimar Germany. The Nazis said that homosexuality was degenerate, effeminate, perverted and undermined masculinity because it did not produce children.
Fascism emphasizes both palingenesis national rebirth or re-creation and modernism. In Italy, such modernist influence was exemplified by Marinetti who advocated a palingenetic modernist society that condemned liberal-bourgeois values of tradition and psychology, while promoting a technological-martial religion of national renewal that emphasized militant nationalism. According to cultural critic Susan Sontag :. Fascist aesthetics The fascist dramaturgy centers on the orgiastic transactions between mighty forces and their puppets, uniformly garbed and shown in ever swelling numbers.
Its choreography alternates between ceaseless motion and a congealed, static, "virile" posing. Fascist art glorifies surrender, it exalts mindlessness, it glamorizes death. Sontag also enumerates some commonalities between fascist art and the official art of communist countries, such as the obeisance of the masses to the hero, and a preference for the monumental and the "grandiose and rigid" choreography of mass bodies.
But whereas official communist art "aims to expound and reinforce a utopian morality", the art of fascist countries such as Nazi Germany "displays a utopian aesthetics — that of physical perfection", in a way that is "both prurient and idealizing".
One of the most common and strongest criticisms of fascism is that it is a tyranny. Some critics of Italian fascism have said that much of the ideology was merely a by-product of unprincipled opportunism by Mussolini and that he changed his political stances merely to bolster his personal ambitions while he disguised them as being purposeful to the public.
Mussolini, as I have learned to know him, is an opportunist in the sense that he believed that mankind itself must be fitted to changing conditions rather than to fixed theories, no matter how many hopes and prayers have been expended on theories and programmes". It may have succeeded yesterday and fail to-morrow. Failed yesterday and succeed to-morrow.
The machine first of all must run! Some have criticized Mussolini's actions during the outbreak of World War I as opportunist for seeming to suddenly abandon Marxist egalitarian internationalism for non-egalitarian nationalism and note to that effect that upon Mussolini endorsing Italy's intervention in the war against Germany and Austria-Hungary, he and the new fascist movement received financial support from foreign sources, such as Ansaldo an armaments firm and other companies  as well as the British Security Service MI5.
Mussolini's transformation away from Marxism into what eventually became fascism began prior to World War I, as Mussolini had grown increasingly pessimistic about Marxism and egalitarianism while becoming increasingly supportive of figures who opposed egalitarianism, such as Friedrich Nietzsche. Fascism has been criticized for being ideologically dishonest.
Major examples of ideological dishonesty have been identified in Italian fascism's changing relationship with German Nazism. Opening Hours: 9am-4pm Monday to Friday. Big Rock, 76 th Avenue S. Only available in its home province, this is a great brewery for those looking to try something new and unusual. Opening Hours: 11ampm daily. Select currency. My Plans. The Dandy Brewing Company. Find Dandy's new summer sour at quality liquor stores such as Calgary Co-op.
Last Best Brewing and Distilling Co. Toolshed Brewing. Village Brewery. Wild Rose Brewery. Big Rock Brewery. The two routinely check in with him when planning live appearances in Alberta, and this time up he had a room of his own to host them in. In addition to Bloodshot Bill, live music plans for the Dandy space include the upcoming Dandy Fest held both in the taproom and the parking lot.
Beer Pairing: Leon has two suggestions for what to drink during the Bloodshot Bill show. Village consistently holds about one to three live music events per month and each includes a collaborative cask tapping. Not only did he once work for Village, he also respected its efforts to be supporters of the arts community.Wild Rose Brewery & Taproom - Quesnay Wood Dr SW, Calgary Zero Issue Brewing - 12 St NE, Calgary Eighty-Eight Brewing Co. - # - Portland St SE, Calgary.