From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. File format for storing digital audio data on a computer system. See also: Raw audio format and Uncompressed video. See also: Comparison of audio coding formats and List of codecs. Archived from the original on January 29, Categories : Digital container formats Audio file formats. Hidden categories: All articles lacking reliable references Articles lacking reliable references from March Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Pages using RFC magic links.
Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Thanks for your feedback, it helps us improve the site. How satisfied are you with this response? This site in other languages x. Bad or improperly made labels, or labels applied off-center, unbalance the CD and can cause it to vibrate when it spins, which causes read errors and even risks damaging the drive.
A professional alternative to CD labels is pre-printed CDs using a 5-color silkscreen or offset press. Using a permanent marker pen is also a common practice. However, solvents from such pens can affect the dye layer.
Destroying the data requires physically destroying the disc or data layer. Heating the disc in a microwave oven for 10—15 seconds effectively destroys the data layer by causing arcing in the metal reflective layer, but this same arcing may cause damage or excessive wear to the microwave oven.
Many office paper shredders are also designed to shred CDs. Some recent burners Plextor, LiteOn support erase operations on -R media, by "overwriting" the stored data with strong laser power, although the erased area cannot be overwritten with new data. The polycarbonate material and possible gold or silver in the reflective layer would make CD-Rs highly recyclable. However, the polycarbonate is of very little value and the quantity of precious metals is so small that it is not profitable to recover them.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with CDR or Carbon dioxide removal. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Optical disc Optical disc drive Optical disc authoring Authoring software Recording technologies Recording modes Packet writing Burst cutting area. Optical media types. See also.
Thank you! I find the elongated skulls rather interesting This also brings to mind Egyptian images that I have seen over the years of royal family members having elongated skulls as well. Its in my most humble opinion debatable whether skulls like this are from skull shaping or whether this is simply how these beings looked. But even if the skulls were shaped this way it was likely done to imitate what the "royals" and "gods" read: Extraterrestrals look like. Interesting stuff Sky.
Originally posted by Skyfloating reply to post by woodwytch. Regarding the skulls Huns had habited "Omsk" and had also practiced artificial cranial deformation Originally posted by Kemal Regarding the skulls I read quite a lot about cranial elongation a few years ago and find an anomaly between the types who have practised it. King Tut apparently had an elongated head as did Queen Nerfititi sp , likewise high born Peruvians etc. When frequency content is smeared over time, its average level over time increases slightly.
This can result in the listener perceiving it as louder, with further consequences for timbre and frequency masking. Audio Example Q: spaced test tones. Image 11 shows high-frequency content missing red arrows : hot colours which represent greater amplitudes are either missing in the output of the compressed format or smeared and less precise green, blue and black arrows. Generally, the hot-coloured frequency content shapes of the original are less clear in the compressed format, and we can see that the time and amplitude components of the material have been changed.
Another common artifact, commonly referred to as 'swirlies', is caused by the rapid coming and going of lower-level frequency content in the compressed format, which is stable in the raw file. Pay close attention to the hi-hat and cymbals throughout the excerpt, and the sibilant consonants of the vocal, all of which are consistent and smooth. The vocals, and indeed the entire mix, is flat, lifeless, and lacks clarity and definition. Perceptual coding relies on our ears' inability to hear frequency content obscured by other frequency content.
Audio Example Q: Audio Example R: spaced test tones encoded as MP3. Audio Example R: Audio Example S. The effects of kbps CBR MP3 encoding show the 16kHz brickwall HF roll-off, and added fluctuating frequency content around and in between the original tones, resulting in clearly audible artifacts. Audio Example S: However, increasing the analyser resolution not shown does reveal an arguably inaudible increased noise floor.
But how many consumers are downloading or encoding material to their iPods in the kbps AAC format? Most people don't even think about changing their default iTunes import settings! Make sure you do if you want to hear the record as intended. The audio examples linked here, from the Barclay Martin Ensemble's 'Tumbling Down', allow one to hear the actual audio content that is discarded by lossy encoders.
In addition, varying levels of added fluctuating noise content can be heard. Almost every element of the track is audible! Question Everything. Take a Bow. The 24th episode the 1st season When Rachel is waiting for Ross at the airport. The 16th episode of the 4th season Home party in honor of the departure of Emily. Let Me Blow Ya Mind. Looks Like We Made It. Time of the Season. The 6th episode of the 3rd season The song that came from the jukebox that Rachel hit.
Big Bad Voodoo Daddy. Big Time Operator. The 14th episode of the 7th season One of the songs from Monica's surprise party. London Calling. The 15th episode of the 8th season Chandler comes into the apartment, before discovers the videotape. May 11, · However, as of September , Amazon Music is also in the CD-quality and hi-res audio space with its Amazon Music HD service. Tidal and Amazon Music HD are now locked in .