This victory ended French occupation, and divided the country of Vietnam in two—the communist North and the anti-communist South—sparking a civil war. As part of the United States's cold war policy of containment, which aimed to prevent the spread of communism, the United States supported South Vietnam.
President Kennedy began the U. However, after the controversial Gulf of Tonkin incident on July 27, , in which U. With over half a million troops committed at the height of U. However, the Tet Offensive of January 30, , illustrated otherwise, as the North Vietnamese army attacked nearly every city in South Vietnam to the surprise of U. The war continued to escalate; many soldiers were required to serve involuntary second tours; and opposition to the war gathered public support.
Over the next decade, thousands of American troops were killed or injured, and little progress appeared to be made against the North. In the face of rising anti-war sentiment at home, Nixon steadily reduced the number of troops in Vietnam, and in , signed the Paris Peace Accords, which ended the war and called for the withdrawal of U.
In , Congress cut all funding to the South Vietnamese government in Saigon, leaving them without an ally against the North. The North marched into South Vietnam, taking all major cities. The U. Vietnam was reunified into one communist country under the name Socialist Republic of Vietnam, with Hanoi, the former capital of North Vietnam, as its capital city. The Vietnam War is the longest war in U. Opposition to the war began early on college campuses, as many of the men drafted to fight in Vietnam were college aged.
In , the first organized burning of draft cards was held. The burning of draft cards, along with draft dodging and conscientious objection, became symbols of the opposition, as individuals refused to participate in what they considered an unjust war.
As troop involvement increased, the anti-war movement did as well. President Johnson increased the number of troops and bombings in Vietnam in and , and protesters became more vocal in their opposition.
In October , protesters led the March on the Pentagon , hoping to besiege the national symbol of military might, a move that strengthened the national anti-war movement and ultimately weakened Johnson's presidency.
By , less than a quarter of American citizens supported Johnson's war decisions. Demonstrations were held across the country, and were often televised, which allowed protesters to get their message out to a large audience.
The hand gesture that had meant victory in World War II—holding up two fingers in a V shape—was repurposed by protesters as a peace sign.
A second moratorium was held on November Anti-war sentiment began to build amongst the troops as well, with many soldiers wearing peace signs on their uniforms. The United States invaded Cambodia in , sparking protests across the nation. The nation was outraged, and over one hundred colleges went on strike in response.
Nixon, overwhelmed by the national anti-war sentiment, agreed to withdraw fifty thousand troops. By the end of , U. Many historians and scholars believe that the anti-war movement had a direct effect on the outcome of the Vietnam War, ultimately turning public opinion against it. Additionally, it is suggested that the anti-war movement had detrimental effects on both Johnson's and Nixon's presidencies. The movement is often cited as an example of how the American people can have an effect on government policy and proceedings.
Though there was occasional violence, the anti-war movement was overall a peaceful one. The standards by which critics approached Born on the Fourth of July upon its publication seem different from the usual reviews given to memoirs or first-person accounts.
Most critics took into consideration that the book was not the product of a trained writer with literary aspirations or pretensions. That said, the consensus was clear that Ron Kovic had produced a powerful and, in many regards, timeless war classic. Published as it was just a year after the end of the war, the book was lauded for its honesty and forthright portrayal of a young man and his country caught up in uncontrollable situations.
Donald C. Galbasini's review in the October issue of the American Bar Association Journal , calls Born on the Fourth of July "a very readable story of what war does to human beings. It should be noted however, that there is still not much significant critical work on the memoir, especially when compared with the criticism on the Oliver Stone film adaptation of the book.
Although the regular questions of adaptation were raised, and the film did have some differences from the book, it still remained true to the text—especially since Kovic co-wrote the script and worked closely with Stone.
In an interview with Accent on Living , Kovic recalls that there was interest in adapting his memoir to film very soon after it was published in Of the film, Stuart Klawans in the Nation says that it, like the book, "has the urgency of truth told—or screamed—against a deafening Muzak of lies. The memoir's triumph was indisputable in , when Oliver Stone turned it into a major motion picture starring Tom Cruise.
In his ability to move beyond the initial parameters of criticism on the book, Murdock is able to ask important questions of Kovic in hindsight:. Does [Kovic] consider there to be a just conflict, or do all wars fall within this model of harm? If his idealism had been rewarded with a clear enemy, a clear objective, and a clear victory, would the reality of war be different? These questions are not necessarily a pointed criticism or attack on Kovic's integrity, but they serve to put the book and its author under the critical eye of a twenty-first-century perspective.
In a post-September 11 world, can there still be justifiable reasoning to fervently anti-war sentiments? Does the government have to be more careful about the way it deploys the military in a world that knows of the mistakes of Vietnam?
It remains dangerous to affix contemporary sentiments and perspectives on any book that is so clearly of its time and place, but Murdock's review deserves consideration when absorbing the impact Born on the Fourth of July has had, and continues to have, on the reading public. In the following excerpt, Shor explores how the myths of patriotism and masculinity led thousands of Cold-War era young men, including Kovic, into the Vietnam War and how they managed to break free of those myths through antiwar activitism.
Born on the Fourth of July was released in an abridged audio version on cassette. It was published by Caedmon and is narrated by Ron Kovic. It is available from Audiobooks. The film adaptation of Born on the Fourth of July , was directed by Oliver Stone, and the screenplay was co-written by Kovic.
Tom Cruise plays Kovic, and the film garnered critical acclaim and numerous awards, including two Academy Awards and four Golden Globes. Revealing the symbolizing power of the patriotic ideology of the period, Kovic's narrative embodies both a personal and collective story of the conscious and unconscious authority of a variety of myths.
For at every opportunity, he is obscured further, until he is no longer there. That is what makes this hour-long dirge stirring, and yet indiscernible, moving, yet distant. Presented for you in a white cassette with black stamping. Includes a download card. Tags: Antiquated Future , Tucker Theodore. Patrick R. Check it out via the link below, with good headphones or bass-heavy speakers. Free jazz in the spirit of lo-fi punk, with tape manipulations.
Raw and clangorous. The liner notes suggest a sort of new age psychiatry vibe. In fact, the deluxe handmade packaging somewhat outshines the recordings, between the funny enigmatic liner notes and a hodge-podge of imagery that defies expectations. The strange photo of an assembled plate of food on the edge of a sink is a nice corollary to the music, because they both strike me as documents of raw living.
Maybe it was delicious, maybe it was gross, but it was definitely the real raw-dog deal. Mine eyes have seen the glory. Interacting with Michael Potter online has clouded what I expect Michael Potter on tape to sound like. The musician, based in Athens, Georgia, enjoys a wide array of experimental cassette releases hey, like me! Not the noisenik of my imagination, Potter instead tackles two of my greatest loves, prog and krautrock, excelling way beyond any reasonable expectation and making my fucking day right there and then.
You like hyperbole? And this is all in the first track alone. The bass keeps up, lithe, athletic, while guitar and synth color and texturize the landscape, bursting and blooming anew with each passing second. Dare we add Maserati to the mix? Buy another one. Give it away. Give them all good homes. Make those good homes better ones. This is so great. Why is David Bowie talking to me from beyond the grave?
And the real question — is everyone with a British accent David Bowie? Paul Carr is a winner with a winning personality, remember that or face the deadly consequences. Atonal blackness envelops, night rife with existential danger. White Blues in the 's. Organ Hammond. Physical Graffiti. Mellotron, Keyboards, Bass, Composer. On Stage in Europe Hiawatha Express.
Earls Court. Acid Queen. Superstars of the 70's [Warner]. Madison Square Garden, Live in Seattle: The Tour. Houses of the Holy. The New Age of Atlantic. Take a Sad Song Godfrey Daniel. CCS 2. New Testament. Live at the Fillmore West. Led Zeppelin IV. Clotho's Web.
Julie Felix. Blue Memphis. Memphis Slim. Super Hits, Vol. Live on Blueberry Hill [Trademark of Quality]. Led Zeppelin III. Immigrant Song. Another White Summer. Brass Arrangement, String Arrangements. Three Week Hero. Seven Lonely Days. Jean Shepard. Reviewing the Situation. Sandie Shaw. Led Zeppelin II. Donovan's Greatest Hits. Graham Gouldman Thing. Graham Gouldman. Their Satanic Majesties Request. Mellow Yellow.
Roger the Engineer. Yoga to Led Zeppelin. Yoga Pop Ups. Vampires Underground. The Vampires. Three Sides Zeppelin. Three Sides Now. The Dedicated Followers of Fashion. The X Brothers. The Complete Led Zeppelin Collection. The Blind Watchmaker. Mars 4-Tet. The Age of Atlantic. The Ocean. Composer, Guitar Bass , Keyboards, Mandolin.
The Lemon Song. Sunshine Woman. Composer, Group Member. Stucky Live Erika Stucky. Sketchy Black Dog. She Rocks, Vol. Unknown Contributor Role. Seven Devils Moonshine. Rock and Roll. Rock Classics [Rhino]. Return to Splendor. The King. Carol Morgan. Reeman Does More Zeppelin. Randy Reeman. Red Dirt Road. Engineer, Studio Technician, Technical Advisor. Rare Tracks. Blindside Blues Band. Psych Box. Mark Wood. Party Tyme Karaoke. No Way, Let's Do It,! Wild Adriatic. New Hits '96 [Sony].
Misty Mountain Hop. Mirror Mirror. Gema Pearl. Metally Insane. Fatal Array. Massive Hits! Boom Pam. Lullaby Versions of Led Zeppelin. Twinkle Twinkle Little Rock Star. Lullaby Rock, Vol. The Marcarlo Brothers. Live at the Borderline. Live From Saturday Night Livestream. The Dirty Nil.
Live At Hotel Congress. Left for Dead. Dudley Taft. Led Zeppelin [Joker]. Laughing at Life. La Voix II. L' Olympia, Paris, France: October 10, Killers Of The Game. Jackie: The Annual In the Evening. Composer, Guitar Bass. If It Keeps on Raining. Hots On for Nowhere. Guitar Bass. Grandes Hits de Los Rockin Devil's. Los Rockin Devil's. Giro From Space and Beyond.
For Dad. Festival Hits: Rock. Everybody Loves The 60's, Vol. The Hit Crew. Kolhoz, 6. Cwoboda, 8. Soul Servant, 9. Strotheim - perkusja, J. Kristensent - gitara. Peyshens, 8. Bo Jo Cie Kochom, 9. Conveyor Belt. Strona A: 1. Troops Of Tomorrow, 4.
Astonishingly, Strummer and Rhodes decided they could keep the band going themselves, and wrote and produced a new album together. What could possibly go wrong?
To this they added some other elements, one of them recurring backing choruses that sounded like they were recorded by crowds in soccer stadiums.
But nothing could disguise the fact that they had replaced the strongest British rock songwriter since Keith Richards with a music-business operator whose music experience had consisted solely of watching rock bands. From the ugly title on down, Cut the Crap is a sordid and clumsy affair. Neither Strummer nor Rhodes really knew how to make records, and what they thought was radical, like running TV programs over songs, were just bad ideas. You patiently wait for the song to start, and then you realize you just missed the best part of this lame track.
While we dutifully account for all the shitty songs on Cut the Crap , we might as well look at how the Clash came to be the Clash. His mother was from the far, far north of Scotland, the rough equivalent of being from Nome.
Strummer himself was born in Turkey. He also lived in Mexico, Egypt, and Germany before being sent back home to what he recalled was a repressive boarding school. Despite once-a-year trips to exotic locales to see his parents, he was at that point decisively emotionally detached from them. At school he was, by his own account, a ringleader and one of the bullies, as opposed to the bullied. In the codes governing him and his fellows at the time, this background made him somewhat upper class, and he worked to suppress such leanings.
He was eventually thrown out of school; on his way home that night, he tossed his portfolio into a garbage can. And worse. The first few verses are literally about fingers snapping, and the rest of it is Joe trying to get people out onto the floor to dance, which, from a guy with his emotional agitation at the time, is less than festive.
The instrumentation and mixing could be used in a class about how not to mix and produce a record competently. Back to our story: Mick Jones was born in the s but still grew up among the ruins of the war in Brixton, in south London. He ended up at an art school in Wales — until a friend introduced him to reggae. Holy shit, he thought, and went back to London.
He was obsessed with music and would even follow the Faces or Mott the Hoople around England, sneaking into shows. A tape of voices from radio or TV is run over the entire song, a device that gets annoying quick.
Meanwhile, a strange couple, Malcolm McLaren and Vivienne Westwood, were purveying odd clothes out of a boutique with an ever-changing name on Kings Road, in Chelsea. Various members of bands who would soon become notorious worked there. One day, Jones and Simonon, having checked out the ers and wanting to ask Strummer to join their group, spied on Strummer as he lined up to pick up his check from the dole office. Strummer saw them lurking outside and figured he was about to get jumped.
He sized up which one to kick in the balls first. I could hear your momma scream. When your daddy smashed that TV screen. I understand what he had to say. Violence was averted that day, and Strummer was eventually brought to meet Jones formally through a mutual friend named Bernard Rhodes, who, depending on whom you ask, was either a key part of the Malcolm McLaren brain trust, or his driver. The ultimate verdict on Rhodes remains open. The band ultimately fired him — and produced its best work, London Calling and Sandinista!
Still, Rhodes helped bring Strummer and Jones together, and was a voice, among others, for writing songs about politics, real life, and society rather than the pop verity of girls girls girls. This lesson, as we shall see, Strummer and Jones learned very well. Everyone in the band says the Clash would not have been the Clash without him.
Rhodes was known for having an apartment whose sole furniture was stacks of Marxism Today used as chairs, and was also by most accounts a somewhat rude person, with schemes upon schemes going on at any given time.
Albertine thought he was a fraud; when the Clash would meet in her apartment Rhodes would push past her without saying hello. It should be noted that while everyone in the scene has had his or her say about Rhodes, most of it making for a convincing megalomaniacal portrait, he himself has kept his own counsel through the ensuing decades. Sometimes I wonder if Strummer primarily a lyricist wrote the music on Cut the Crap , Rhodes the lyrics. That would explain why on this album, with the band having lost only the musical half of its songwriting team, both the songs and the lyrics are terrible.
The Clash and the Sex Pistols formed around the same time; the Pistols opened for the Clash at their first show at their squat, and the Clash opened for the Pistols soon after. We used to sleep together in the same bed, farting contests all night long. Most of these groups, along with Thunders, in exile from New York, all joined up for a merry tour of the U. Everything was going great until the Pistols and a few friends — including Sioux and a nitwit wearing a swastika armband — appeared on an early evening talk show.
The segment saw a host with the Dickensian name of Paul Grundy provoke the group — until the segment, which lasted all of two minutes, disintegrated in a hail of foul language. Most of the shows of the tour got canceled. For the record, I think there are other late-Clash songs on a later rerelease of Cut the Crap, but I could never get past marveling at the thought of a rerelease of Cut the Crap.
It consists of an interview the magazine did with the band, laid over a rousing instrumental track they supplied to go with it. To make matters worse, the chat was conducted on the subway. Close, but no cigar.
But the instrumentation is weird, with some odd sounds percolating in the background. Back to our story: For the first three months of , a club called the Roxy gave the bands free rein to play. The scene coalesced around this venue during these months. Outside, national hostility to the punks after the Grundy appearance, egged on by the tabloids, was explicit. It was actually physically dangerous to be a punk. Leaving aside the guys with the swastikas who you could say got what was coming to them, virtually all of the denizens of the scene at the time have stories about being jumped or assaulted in one way or another.
Johnny Rotten was slashed with knives in one serious attack. Strummer ended up in the hospital with hepatitis after taking one affectionate load in the mouth. Retrieved 22 June Archived from the original on 7 March Retrieved 15 February Dutch Top Retrieved 25 February Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 23 March Archived from the original on 9 March Retrieved 28 August Australian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved 9 January Bundesverband Musikindustrie.
Retrieved 15 May Federazione Industria Musicale Italiana. Retrieved 6 November Select "" in the "Anno" drop-down menu. Select "Bitter Sweet Symphony" in the "Filtra" field. Select "Singoli online" under "Sezione". British Phonographic Industry.
Retrieved 2 January Recording Industry Association of America. The Verve. The Verve E."Bitter Sweet Symphony" is a song by English alternative rock band the Verve. It is the lead track on their third studio album, Urban Hymns (). It is based on a sample it uses from the Andrew Loog Oldham orchestral cover of the Rolling Stones' song "The Last Time", and involved some legal controversy surrounding a plagiarism charge. As a result, Mick Jagger and Keith Genre: Britpop, alternative rock.